Sunday, March 05, 2006

Parte 1:Experimento de Urey-Miller

"Embora o 'darwinismo fundamentalista' afirme que a origem da vida não é assunto importante na discussão do 'fato da evolução', o experimento de Urey-Miller, simples obtenção de aminoácidos ['tijolos construtores' de proteínas], é exemplificado como o primeiro passo importante na origem e evolução química da vida cientificamente demonstrado. Mas as proteínas é que são os 'tijolos construtores' da vida e até hoje não conseguimos ir além desses insignificantes aminoácidos...A partir dos anos 70 do século 20, os cientistas concluíram: a atmosfera da Terra primitiva não era nada parecida com a mistura de gases usadas por Urey-Miller. O 'Mysterium tremendum', continua misterioso, inacessível e agora com um prêmio de US$ 1.350.000,00 para quem for além da experiência simples de Urey-Miller [http://www.us.net/life]."

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Um trecho de um artigo também de Enézio feito em defesa deste que estou dissertando:

"O controle de danos da Nomenklatura científica alerta: o navio 'Darwinic' está afundando, mas tudo vai bem."
http://pos-darwinista.blogspot.com/2006_02_01_pos-darwinista_archive.html

"Os seres vivos [e até uma 'simples' célula] são extrema e irredutivelmente complexos e a seleção natural pré-biológica [???] não poderia agir sobre os compostos químicos 'mais aptos que sobreviveram' da [inexistente] 'sopa protéica', porque compostos químicos, simplesmente, não deixam descendência.

A extrema dificuldade das teorias de origens é que elas não podem ser falsificadas - o evento original não pode ser repetido para podermos falsear ou não nossas teorias. Situação epistemológica Catch-22: as teorias das origens da vida são apenas plausíveis ou implausíveis.

Nestes últimos 50 anos, os pesquisadores da evolução pré-biológica têm encontrado 'em dezenas de laboratórios' [???] segundo Klaus Dose, apenas 'impasse e frustração'. Por quê?

1. A origem da vida foi rápida demais - há uns 3.86 bilhões de anos. MOJZSIS, Stephen J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago", Nature 384 (1996):55-59. Dados sugerem que a vida se originou não somente uma, mas várias vezes entre 3.86 e 3.5 bilhões de anos. Pelo menos uma delas ocorreu em 10 milhões de anos ou menos - tempo muito abreviado para o surgimento da vida por quaisquer modelos tipo Urey-Miller.


2. Nunca houve uma 'sopa prebiótica'. Em todas as formas de sedimentos carboníferos, de todas as eras geológicas, pesquisadores concluíram: nenhuma 'sopa' ou substrato existiu. LAZCANO, Antonio. "Chemical Evolution and the Prebiotic Soup: Did Oparin Get it Right?", Journal of Theoretical Biology 184 (1997):219-23.

3. O paradoxo oxigênio-raios ultravioletas. A presença de oxigênio molecular impede as reações químicas das quais os modelos Urey-Miller dependem. A ausência de oxigênio permitiria a penetração da radiação ultravioleta na atmosfera da Terra, frustrando novamente as reações químicas necessárias.

4. O sinergismo biomolecular. Sob condições naturais, as proteínas podem agrupar-se somente com a presença de moléculas de DNA e RNA. As moléculas de DNA, por sua vez, podem agrupar-se somente com a presença de moléculas de proteínas e de RNA.Já as moléculas de RNA podem agrupar-se somente com a presença de moléculas de proteínas e de DNA. Como se não bastasse ser bastante complicada esta interdependência, as moléculas de RNA e muitas moléculas de proteínas e de DNA são estáveis somente se estiverem contidas numa membrana biológica. IRION, Robert. "Ocean Scientists Find Life, Warmth in the Seas", Science 279 (1998):1302-3.

5.As membranas biológicas podem agrupar-se somente se as moléculas de DNA, RNA, de proteínas, e de complexos de proteínas de RNA estiverem presentes. WALTER, Peter et al. "SRP - Where the RNA and Membrane Worlds Meet", Science 287(2000):1212-13.; BATEY, R. T. et al. "Crystal Structure of the Ribonucleoprotein Core of the Signal Recognition Particle", Science 287 (2000) p.1232-39.

6. A organização de biomoléculas. A função celular exige: a) os números e os tipos exatos de moléculas de proteínas, de RNA e de DNA; b) o posicionamento exato destas moléculas em locais específicos dentro da célula; e c) uma específica proporção de nucleotídeos funcionais e não-funcionais ou seqüências de aminoácidos nas moléculas da célula. BEATON, Margaret J. e CAVALIER-SMITH, T. "Eukaryotic Non-Coding DNA is Functional: Evidence from the Differential Scale of Cryptomonad Genomes", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266(1999):2053-59; CAVALIER-SMITH, T. "Nuclear Volume Control by Nucleoskeletal DNA, Selection for Cell Volume and Cell Growth Rate, and the Solution of the DNA C-Value Paradox", Journal of Cell Science 34 (1978):247-78.

7. Minimização de erro seqüencial. O seqüenciamento de aminoácidos nas proteínas e nucleotídeos das moléculas de DNA e RNA está estrategicamente fixado para minimizar o dano causado pelas mutações [???].Esta capacidade incorporada para a minimização de erros é igual ou ultrapassa os melhores esforços humanos em minimizar erros em coisas como programas de computador. FREELAND, Stephen J. e HURST, Lawrence D., "The Genetic Code is One in a Million", Journal of Molecular Evolution 47 (1998):238-48; LUDWIG, Mark A., "Computer Viruses, Artificial Life, and Evolution. Tucson, AZ: American Eagle Publication,1993.

8. A complexidade da vida mais simples. Os geneticistas têm determinado que a forma de vida mais simples exige um mínimo de 1.400 genes para sobreviver em independência.

9.Mesmo sob condições químicas ideais, com todas as moléculas pré-bióticas necessárias e a ausência total de moléculas contaminadoras, esta forma 'mais simples' de vida não teria condições de se agrupar sozinha, nem mesmo dentro do tempo da existência do universo! PATTERSON, Collin. Evolution, 2a. ed., Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999, p. 22-23."

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Não é preciso ser adepto do “darwinismo fundamentalista” para reconhecer que a verdade ou falsidade de qualquer teoria da abiogênese não afetará nem minimamente a evolução, porque elas envolvem diferentes processos naturais.

De qualquer forma, ao contrário que Enézio pensa, a abiogênese não é uma teoria (o mesmo vale para outras teorias “grandes”).Não existe nenhuma “teoria da abiogênese”. Existem diversas teorias explicativas sobre a formação de cada tipo de composto orgânico.No total, essas teorias formam um programa de pesquisa.Mesmo considerando uma afirmação da evolução até o estágio de uma bactéria atual, existiriam os estágios: elementos químicos simples -> blocos de polímeros-> polímeros catalíticos +metabolismo abiótico do “pré-mundo de RNA” -> Mundo de RNA-> DNA/sistema de proteínas.Assim, as teorias da abiogênese lidam separadamente com seus domínios específicos.No total, a junção de teorias abiogênicas formam um paradigma (e existe mais de um programa de pesquisa neste campo).O experimento de Miller faz parte do teste de uma tese sobre a possibilidade de uma variedade de moléculas orgânicas serem formadas, e não de uma teoria geral sobre a origem da vida.É exatamente por isso que quando os livros-textos abordam esse experimento, não estão dizendo que uma coleção de compostos implica em vida.Esse experimento foi um passo importante, mas não suficiente para entender a origem da vida.Isso é deixado bem claro em livros como Evolução:Uma Introdução de Stearns e Hoekstra e Biologia Evolutiva (2ªedição) de Futuyma.

É importante que ela seja mostrada nos livros-textos porque a origem da vida é um evento que antecede o início da evolução biológica e alguns componentes estudados nestas pesquisas também fazem parte de estudos da bioquímica.A abordagem só poderia ser proibida, se ela estivesse na seção "Evolução" de um livro de biologia.

E a acusação (inspirada nas afirmações de Jonathan Wells em Ícones da Evolução) que a atmosfera da Terra não era nada parecida com a mistura usadas por Urey-Miller é falsa.Evidências mais recentes realmente indicam que a atmosfera não era fortemente redutora como Miller pensava, mas ainda ssim era moderamente redutora (Kasting,1993).Isso mudou um pouco mais recentemente, porque novos cálculos mostraram que existia uma quantidade de hidrogênio consideravelmente maior do que se pensava anteriormente (Robinson,2005).

Uma coisa desprezada pelo autor do artigo é que foram feitos experiências com atmosferas de outras composições além daquela fortemente redutora (Miller,1987). Além disso, fendas hidrotérmicas (gêiseres do fundo do mar) podem produzir significantes quantidades de gases redutores -eles são fontes importantes de gases redutores atmosféricos ainda hoje, emitindo cerca de 1% de metano (Kasting & Brown,1998) e produzindo hidrogênio redutor e hidrogênio sulfídrico (Perkins,2001) e potencial amônia pré-biótica (Chyba,1998).Entre outras fontes não-atmosféricas está incluída a síntese de compostos orgânicos em um oceano redutor (Chang,1994) e aquíferos vulcânicos (Washington,2000).

Outra “controvérsia” seria a presença de oxigênio na atmosfera da Terra, que inviabilizaria as reações químicas. Na verdade, quase todos os investigadores que trabalham no estudo da atmosfera primitiva alegam que o oxigênio era essencialmente ausente durante o período em que vida originou (Copley, 2001) e conseqüentemente o oxigênio não poderia ter um papel para impedir a síntese química. As fontes dos dados incluem depósitos fluviais arenosos de uraninite (Rasmussen & Buick,1999) e formações unidas do ferro (Copley, 2001), que não poderia ter sido depositado sob circunstâncias de oxidação. Há também os dados da química da crosta que sugerem que o oxigênio era essencialmente ausente da atmosfera primitiva (Kump et al., 2001).Outros dados mostram que o nível de oxigênio não começou a se elevar significativamente até 1,5 bilhões de anos depois que a vida foi originada (Copley,2001).

Dizer que os experimentos de Urey-Miller são irrelevantes para a compreensão do surgimento de aminoácidos *(1) e outros biomonômeros é completamente falso.

Sobre as pesquisas referentes à origem da vida o Sr.Almeida Filho diz que até hoje não “conseguimos ir além desses insignificantes aminoácidos”, mas essa alegação é falsa.Veja por exemplo esse artigo de J.P. Ferris, Leslie Orgel, et al. intitulado “Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces” onde conseguiram induzir em superfície mineral a formação de cadeias com 55 aminoácidos de comprimento, um tamanho maior que a metade da proteína Citocromo C.Essa é uma das muitas pesquisas envolvendo longas seqüências de proteínas.A estimativa sobre plausibilidade da formação de um polímero não é feita só com experimentos, mas também com cálculos.Não se pode falar em grandes improbabilidades na formação de polímeros, quando existem ligases que auxiliam no processo.A ligase é uma enzima ou uma ribozima que adiciona um monômero a um polímero ou liga dois pequenos polímeros um com o outro. Um exemplo dele é o auto-replicador do grupo Ghadiri, que possui 32 aminoácidos.Como os aminoácidos ao todo são 20, então ele tem uma probabilidade de formação randômica de (1/20) elevado a 32. Entretanto, considerando um volume do oceano da terra primitiva de 10 elevado a 24 litros e uma concentração e a estimativa de uma sopa moderamente diluída de 10 elevado a -6 M (Chyba & Sagan, 1992) e que um quilo de aminoácidos tem 2,85 x 10 elevado a 24 moléculas, então o número de tentativas simultâneas em um oceano de moléculas é capaz de gerá-lo em espaço de tempo curto. Isso não é difícil imaginar, uma vez que segundo Ferris, Orgel e outros, é possível fazer cadeias de aminoácidos de 55 aminoácidos em 1 ou duas semanas.Com o conhecimento que temos hoje, podemos estimar a probabilidade de formação de oligonucleotídeos, poliaminoácidos e há trabalhos até que lidam com a probabilidade da formação de polímeros e replicadores de polímeros. Os cálculos para o auto-replicador de Ghadiri e outros compostos estão no artigo de Ian Musgrave do Talk Originis Archive intitulado “Lies , Damned Lies, Statistics, and Probability of Abiogenesis Calculations” .

No seu artigo complementar em defesa do artigo que foi publicado primeiramente, Enézio está certo em dizer cenários de 4 bilhões de anos atrás são pouco conhecidos e não podem ser reconstruídos (exceto o da síntese de biomonômeros e polipeptídeos), então o máximo que se pode fazer é propor aqueles que poderiam ter ocorrido.Mas o argumento "o evento original não pode ser reproduzido" implica na visão míope que a ciência só pode utilizar observação empírica direta para extrair explicações.A verdade é que muitas afirmações científicas podem ser deduzidas de observações indiretas (através de predições e/ou retrodições cumpridas).

Mais uma vez é necessário esclarecer que não existe "teoria da abiogênese" e sim teorias da abiogênese. Se muitas teorias sobre certos subdomínios não foram testadas, isso não afeta em nada as outras hipóteses abiogênicas que foram testadas e as conjecturas das outras talvez forneçam uma base útil para futuras pesquisas.Se grande parte da abiogênese ainda é desconhecida, isso significa que ainda não há tecnologia disponível para responder às questões (Garcia cit. Orgel,2003).

Os compostos químicos não deixam descendência, mas tem sua síntese ajudada por enzimas e ribozimas.Mesmo os últimos não são irredutivelmente complexos, porque leis químicas explicam a formação de polímeros.A alegação da inexistência de seleção natural pré-biológica é inválida.Desde que o primeiro replicador surge, já temos seleção.Se uma molécula de RNA surge haverá replicação.Erros ocasionais surgirão, gerando uma família de moléculas similares, mas não idênticas.Moléculas de RNA são identidades simples capazes de evoluir por seleção natural, o que é sugerido em experimentos de laboratório (Stearns & Hoekstra,2003.p.336).

Respondendo as questões que foram enumeradas por ele no artigo complementar:

1- É verdade que recentemente acharam traços químicos na Groelândia que sugerem que a vida surgiu a 3,8 bilhões de anos, o que encutaria o tempo disponível para abiogênese ocorrer em mais de 300 milhões de anos.Entretanto,isso ainda é incerto porque os traços pode ter sido causado por processos não-biológicos e assim poucos biólogos confiam isso como evidência da vida com firmeza (Ridley, 2006.p.552).

2- Quando falamos da relação entre geoquímica e abiogênese, a ausência de evidência não é evidência de ausência.Se nós assumirmos que uma sopa primordial foi formada como precursora do primeiro ser vivo, então todo o material orgânico ou útil de alguma forma foi consumido pelos primeiros organismos (ou o que seja) vivos*(2).

3-A alegação de Enézio leva em conta o pressuposto de alguns pesquisadores que a atmosfera é vulnerável a radiação ultra-violeta, mas a observação da atmosfera de Titan mostra que uma atmosfera assim é mais estável do que se imaginava previamente (Pavlov et al,2000).

Ainda assim, deve-se levar em conta que o DNA e o RNA são relativamente resistentes à luz ultravioleta, porque já se fez simulações indicando que as bases nitrogenadas absorvem e podem dispersar a radiação ultravioleta, protegendo o suporte principal da pentose-pentose-fosfato do RNA (Mulkidjanian et al., 2003).

Ainda que uma atmosfera redutora fosse instável, é questionável que a radiação ultravioleta fosse um problema.Vejam a conclusão de uma pesquisa sobre panspermia publicada na Scientific American Brasil:

"A luz ultra-violeta de alta energia do Sol é uma preocupação especial, porque quebra elos que mantém átomos de carbono unidos nas moléculas orgânicas.É muito fácil, porém, se isolar do ultravioleta;uns poucos milímetros de materiais opacos são suficientes para proteger as bactérias." (Warmflash & Weiss,2005,p.37).

Ou seja, é necessário apenas alguma proteção para as moléculas orgânicas.O caso da existência de meteoritos extraterrestres com compostos semelhantes aqueles sintetizados por Miller é explicado porque a radiação só é capaz de penetrar alguns milímetros na rocha.

No cenário da Terra pré-biótica, muitas moléculas não precisariam está expostas a luz ultra-violeta por muito tempo.Os maus raios poderiam ser totalmente dispersados pelas águas oceânicas ou superfícies minerais em que essas moléculas estariam (Cleaves e Miller,1998; Mullen,2003).

4- A questão de as proteínas só podem se reunir da presença de RNA e DNA ou as moléculas de DNA se reunirem na presença de RNA e proteínas se referem apenas a questão da vida com a configuração que conhecemos hoje.A mera interdependência não é um problema.Se é possível a co-existência dessas moléculas sem interdependência, então não há nenhum paradoxo.A argumentação antievolucionista diz que "DNA precisa de RNAs e proteínas e proteínas precisam de RNAs e DNA".Entretanto, se assumirmos que o primeiro replicador foi o RNA, o problema desaparece.Neste caso, nem o requerimento das proteínas para ajudar na replicação de ácidos nucléicos é necessário.É verdade que os RNAs trabalham em conjunto com enzimas de proteínas que ajudam a ligar os aminoácidos, mas os pesquisadores descobriram que os RNAs no ribossomo podem executar um passo crucial da síntese de proteínas sozinhos.A descoberta que o RNA tem propriedades catalíticas (que inclui a atuação na síntese protéica) e pode agir duplamente e ao mesmo tempo como enzima e superfície de replicação (Nogueira, 2007) abre caminho para postular que investigar como enzimas de RNA poderiam fabricar proteínas sem necessidade de proteínas não é mais o problema do ovo e da galinha.Os pesquisadores do "Mundo de RNA" acreditam que os primeiros estágios da evolução da vida todas as enzimas eram RNAs e não proteínas.Esse cenário também implica que o próprio RNA pode ter tido precursores simples, como o PNA.

É verdade para antes de o DNA ter surgido,o RNA devia está presente.E que o RNA é mais estável em soluções que o DNA, já que o U se forma com mais facilidade que o T em experimentos; mas em meio intracelular,o DNA é mais estável e tem maior capacidade de armazenar informações(Ridley,2006.p.552), o que pode ter favorecido a tomada do poder do DNA como replicador.

5-O fato de as membranas biológicas só se agruparem quando o DNA, RNA e as proteínas estão presentes não torna inviável a evolução de uma célula com as configurações atuais.Só significa que um sistema precursor desta estrutura deveria ter existido para que a transição do mundo pré-biótico até a célula fosse viável.Para estruturas pequenas há suporte experimental de modelos de protocélulas como microesferas e marigrânulos.Para estruturas maiores já foram sugeridos algumas possibilidades.Numa, o berço da vida teria sido a estrutura porosa de pequenas cavidades em minerais de sulfito de ferro, e que essas microcavidades teriam sido precursores de paredes celulares (Martin & Russell,2003).Em outro estudos, há não somente argumentos teóricos a favor, mas também alguma evidência experimental (ver: Hanczyc et al,2003;Deamer et al,2002).

6-É dito que a organização das biomoléculas gera impasse e frustação nos pesquisadores , mas não é explicado como.a)É verdade que "a função celular exige os tipos exatos de moléculas de proteínas, de RNA e de DNA", mas o fato é que num mundo pré-biótico alguns tipos de moléculas teriam se disseminado (ou sido aproveitadas) mais que as outras , ora pela sua estabilidade química , ora pela agilidade diferencial de replicação por parte dos replicadores.
A dinâmica das enzimas protéicas e dos replicadores de ácido nucléico que poderia ter ocorrido no mundo pré-biótico são coisas estudadas em laboratório e matematicamente (ver "nota bene 2") .b)Isso se refere as células eucarióticas, recheadas de organelas especializadas que cumprem diversas funções úteis para as moléculas biológicas.A forma mais simples de vida não precisava de toda essa organização porque uma célula procarionte tem um citoplasma muito simples, onde os ribossomos são as únicas organelas; c)Não é verdade que a evolução até o primeiro organismo é dificultado pelo fato que a função celular exige "uma específica proporção de nucleotídeos funcionais e não-funcionais".Isso porque organismos unicelulares mais primitivos não tem íntrons (trechos sem sentido do DNA) ou eles são raros.Eles não podem ter tido uma proporção mais alta porque simplesmente isto é impossível para seu maquinário celular.Seu splicing (sistema de corte-e-ligação do pré-MRNA) não consegue reconhecer éxons curtos no meio de um mar de íntrons como em organismos multicelulares (Ast,2005.p.55). E o que dizer da "necessidade de uma específica proporção de sequência de aminoácidos nas moléculas da célula"?!Até onde se sabe, o RNA orienta a síntese protéica, indicando não apenas a posição que eles devem ocupar na molécula protéica produzida, mas também os tipos de aminoácidos que serão utilizados.Essa organização é fonte do trabalho dos RNAs (ribossomal, transportador e mensageiro) e das proteínas do ribossomo, não de algo intríseco aos aminoácidos.Um sistema genético simples não precisaria ter toda essa acurácia de replicação do sistema DNA/proteínas atual.Um erro comum é pensar, por exemplo, que somente uma forma uma proteína funcional deveria existir, e qualquer alteração na seqüência daria errado.Muitas proteínas funcionalmente equivalentes tem boa parte de seus aminoácidos diferentes, de modo que uma proteína pode ter trilhões de sequências funcionais possíveis.

7-Os fatores de minimização de danos causados por mutações ocorrem devido a vários fatores:(a) As taxas de mutação estão sob influência da seleção natural sobre os replicadores;(b)A maior parte do DNA eucarioto (mais de 90%) é não-codificante.Assim a chance de uma mutação não alterar nada na região codificante é proporcional à quantidade de DNA não-codificante existente no genoma.Ter muito DNA não-codificante favorece a síntese de várias proteínas com um mesmo gene (Ast,2005.p.55,56);(c)64 trincas codificam apenas 20 aminoácidos.Isso significa que uma mutação que altere uma letra do códon, existirá a possibilidade de esse mesmo aminoácido ser codificado por outro códon.Existem oito aminoácidos em que a trinca é determinada pelos dois primeiros nucleotídeos. O terceiro poderá ser qualquer outro, que ainda assim não haverá nenhum problema.(d)Como a função de uma proteína é determinada por sua estrutura dimensional, existe a possibilidade que um aminoácido seja trocado por outro de característica semelhante (polaridade, tamanho, etc.) sem afetar a funcionalidade da proteína;(e) em organismos com especialização multicelular, se a mutação não ocorrer nos tecidos germinativos, ela não será passada adiante.Mesmo que aconteça nos tecidos germinativos, se a mutação ocorrer depois do indivíduo se reproduzir, ela também não será passada adiante.Devido a isso e a outros fatores, é altamente improvável que um indivíduo receba mutações, ao mesmo tempo, na mesma célula, na mesma região do genoma.

8-Não é verdade que a forma mais simples de vida necessite 1.400 genes para sobreviver em independência.Como isso seria possível se a bactéria Carsonella ruddii necessita de uma quantidade mínima de 182 genes codificadores de proteína para sobreviver (Thar,2006) ?Este é o cenário mais pessimista para a explicação da forma mais simples de vida.A verdade é que qualquer ser que possuíse uma molécula autoreplicante (como o RNA) e metabolismo poderia ser chamado de vida.

9-O absurdo deste argumento está em se apelar a autoridade, sem mostrar a metodologia que tornou possível postular tal improbabilidade.Consequentemente, mostrar um suposto cálculo apresentado num livro, não encerraria a questão nem que o argumentador fosse o atual Prêmio Nobel em Química.Só seria possível calcular a probabilidade de toda a abiogênese se que a vida tivesse evoluído randomicamente de um punhado de aminoácidos e de nucleotídeos diretamente para uma célula, ou seja, ignorando as inúmeras possíveis formas diferentes que o primeiro replicador poderia ter tido.Também, todo o cálculo de probabilidade da abiogênese deveria examinar todas as formas funcionais possíveis de todas as macromoléculas de um organismo. Mas como tudo isso ainda é impossível, então cálculos como o de Patterson são completamente inúteis.O já citado artigo de Musgrave é instrutivo porque mostra a abordagem peseudocientífica dos "cálculos inviabilizadores da abiogênese" (como os de Fred Hoyle e Duane Gish), que não levam em conta os estágios intermediários possíveis da evolução química (elementos químicos simples, polímeros,replicador de polímeros, hiperciclos e protobiontes) e fazem muitas simplificações erradas como ignorar o número de enzimas e ribozimas funcionais existente num polímero.A validade de qualquer conclusão sobre a probabilidade de geração espontânea da vida não depende de argumentos de incredulidade e cálculos absurdos.

*Nota bene(1):Ao dissertar sobre um livro-texto num artigo intitulado "O MEC não adverte: os livros-texto de Biologia do ensino médio fazem mal à educação - Parte 2" em seu blog , Enézio diz:"Sem destacar os problemas sérios com o experimento de 1953, AMABIS & MARTHO (1997 e 2002) informam aos alunos que misturas de gases mais reais ainda produzem “diverso tipos de moléculas orgânicas” (2002, p. 8), sem informá-los de que aquelas moléculas incluem elementos químicos tóxicos tais como cianureto e formoldeído, mas não inclui aminoácidos".A verdade é que ele não sabe que cianureto e formoldeído são tijolos construtores de importantes componentes químicos, incluindo aí os aminoácidos (Abelson, 1996); daí chega-se a conclusão que eles não são toxinas neste contexto.Além disso, os experimentos de Urey-Miller produziram sim aminoácidos e isso inclui a síntese no cenário pessimista (embora não tão provável) de atmosfera primitiva: aquela composta composta por nitrogênio, dióxido de carbono e vapor d´água (Schlesinger & Miller,1983).

*Nota bene (2):Agradecimentos a José Fontanari por ter me esclarecido esta dúvida sobre a relação de geoquímica e abiogênese via e-mail.Para quem não sabe, Fontanari é um famoso pesquisador brasileiro sobre a questão da origem da vida, principalmente no que se refere a dinâmica da evolução dos replicadores.Ele possui os artigos sobre o assunto:

FONTANARI, J. F. Moléculas Altruístas. Scientific American Brasil, São paulo, p. 48 - 55, 01 set. 2005.

FONTANARI, J. F. ; SANTOS, M. ; SZATHMARY, E. . Coexistence and error propagation in pre-biotic vesicle models: A group selection approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology, Nova Iorque, v. 239, n. 2, p. 247-256, 2006.

Ver mais em: http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.jsp?id=K4781766P8


Referências:

Abelson, P.(1996). Chemical events on the primitive earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 55: 1365-1372.

Ast,G.(2005).Genoma Alternativo.Scientific American Brasil.Ano 3, Nº 36,maio de 2005.

Chyba C. and Sagan C. (1992).Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and. impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules: an inventory for the. origins of life.Nature, 355: 125-32.

Chang, S. (1994). The planetary setting of prebiotic evolution. In S. Bengston, ed. Early Life on Earth. Nobel Symposium no. 84. Columbia University Press, New York. p.10-23
Kasting, J. F. (1993). Earth's early atmosphere. Science 259: 920-926.

Cleaves, H.J. and Miller,S.L.(1998).Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (95)13: 7260-7263. Link: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/95/13/7260

Copley, J. (2001). The Story of O. Nature 410:862-864.

Deamer, D., Dworkin, J. P., Sandford, S. A., Bernstein, M. P., and Allamandola, L. J. (2002). The first cell membranes. Astrobiology 2: 371–381.

Garcia,R.(2003).A receita da vida.Revista Galileu.Link:
http://revistagalileu.globo.com/Galileu/0,6993,ECT530051-1948,00.html

Hanczyc, M.M., Fujikawa, S.M., Szostak, J.W.(2003). Experimental models of primitive cellular compartments: Encapsulation, growth and division. Science 302:618-622

Miller, S. L. (1987). Which organic compounds could have occurred on the prebiotic earth? Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 52: 17-27.

Kasting, J. F. and Brown, L. L. (1998).The early atmosphere as a source of biogenic compounds, in The Molecular Origins of Life: Assembling Pieces of the Puzzle. Andre Brack. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 35-56.

Kump, L.R., et al. (2001). Rise of atmospheric oxygen and the "upside-down" Archean mantle. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems -G3, 2, Paper number 2000GC000114.

Martin, W. and Russell,M.J.(2003). On the origins of cells: A hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Philosophical Transactions, Biological Sciences 358: 59-85.

Mullen, L.(2003). Shining light on life's origin. Astrobiology Magazine.Link: http://www.astrobio.net/news/article492.html

Nogueira, S.(2007).Dupla sintetiza molécula 'mãe da vida'.G1>Ciências e Saúde-Notícias.Link: http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/0,,MUL11604-5603-6023,00.html

Pavlov,A.A., Kasting, J.F., Brown L.L., Rages, K.A., Freedman, R.(2000). Greenhouse warming by CH4 in the atmosphere of early Earth. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 11981-11990.

Perkins, S. (2001).New type of hydrothermal vent looms large. Science News, 160(2): 21.

Rasmussen, B., and R. Buick (1999). Redox state of the Archean atmosphere; evidence from detrital heavy minerals in ca. 3250-2750 Ma sandstones from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Geology 27: 115-118.

Ridley, M. (2006).Evolução, 3 ª edição.Editora Artmed, Porto Alegre-RS.

Robinson, R.(2005). Jump-starting a cellular world: Investigating the origin of life, from soup to networks. PLoS Biology 3(11): e396.Link: http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0030396

Schlesinger, G. and Miller,S.L.(1983). Prebiotic synthesis in atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. I. Amino acids. Journal of Molecular Evolution 19(5): 376-382.

Stearns S.C. e Hoekstra, R.F. (2003).Evolução: Uma Introdução.Atheneu Editora São Paulo, São Paulo-SP.

Thar,K.(2006).Smallest Genome of Living Creature Discovered.LiveScience Staff Writer.Link: http://www.livescience.com/animalworld/061012_smallest_genome.html

Warmflash,D. e Weiss,B.(2005).Caminhos para a origem da vida.Scientific American Brasil, Ano 4, Nº 43,dezembro de 2005.

Washington, J. (2000). The possible role of volcanic aquifers in prebiologic genesis of organic compounds and RNA. Origins of Life and the Evolution of the Biosphere.

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