Friday, March 23, 2007

Cérebro tem área ligada à moral, aponta pesquisa

Cérebro tem área ligada à moral, aponta pesquisa

Lesão em zona que integra emoção à consciência prejudica julgamentos morais

Estudo reforça hipótese de que a evolução dotou os seres humanos de um tipo de órgão universal da ética, alojado no sistema nervoso

RAFAEL GARCIA DA REPORTAGEM LOCAL

Para agir de maneira ética, basta pensar de maneira racional ou é preciso se deixar envolver também pelas emoções? De acordo com um estudo publicado ontem, julgamentos morais que as pessoas fazem quando estão diante de um dilema são mais emocionais do que se imaginava -sinal de que a moral não é baseada só na cultura e faz parte da natureza humana. Para lidar com essa questão, um grupo liderado pelo psicólogo americano Marc Hauser, da Universidade Harvard, e pelo neurologista português António Damásio, da Universidade do Sul da Califórnia (ambas nos EUA), submeteu diversos voluntários a um questionário com situações imaginárias de deixar qualquer um arrepiado.

A maior parte delas envolvia decisões do tipo "escolha de Sofia", como sacrificar um filho para salvar um grupo de pessoas. Que mãe permitiria isso? Para tentar inferir o peso da emoção em julgamentos morais, os cientistas incluíram entre os voluntários seis pessoas que haviam sofrido lesões numa área específica do cérebro, o córtex frontal ventromedial (veja o quadro à esquerda). Entre as diversas funções dessa estrutura está a integração de sentimentos à consciência.

O resultado do experimento foi que os portadores da lesão tiveram tendência a pensar de maneira mais "utilitária". Eles escolhiam, da maneira mais fria, a decisão que prejudicasse um número menor de pessoas.

"Em alguns casos -dilemas de grande conflito moral- a emoção parece ter papel significativo nos julgamentos", explicou a Folha Michael Koenigs, colaborador de Hauser e Damásio. "Como os pacientes com a lesão que estudamos presumivelmente carecem de emoções sociais/morais apropriadas, seus julgamentos são mais baseados em considerações utilitárias do que em fatores emocionais."

Uma das questões usadas pelos cientistas envolvia uma situação imaginária na qual famílias vivendo num porão se escondiam de soldados que procuravam civis para matar. Um bebê começa a chorar, e a única maneira de calá-lo para evitar que todos sejam encontrados é tapar a respiração da criança por tempo suficiente para matá-la. O que fazer?

Para os pacientes portadores da lesão estudada, a decisão correta era matar a criança.

Sem empatia

A resposta, de certa forma, era o que os pesquisadores esperavam. "Pacientes com essa lesão exibem menos empatia, compaixão, culpa, vergonha e arrependimento", disse Koenigs, que foi autor principal do artigo que descreve o experimento hoje no site da revista "Nature" (www.nature.com). Ao contrário do que se podia imaginar, porém, essas características não tornaram essas pessoas "más" ou "cruéis". Para situações sem dilemas, as respostas dos pacientes lesionados foram bastante semelhantes às dos voluntários sadios.

Na opinião dos cientistas, o estudo é uma forte evidência de que pensar de maneira puramente utilitarista simplesmente vai contra a natureza humana. O córtex frontal ventromedial, afinal, seria um produto da evolução que ajudou a moldar a forma como as pessoas se relacionam.

"Ele parece ser uma "parte emocional" inata do cérebro, e parece ser crítico para certos aspectos da moralidade", diz Koenigs. O pesquisador afirma, porém, que não é possível separar a influência do ambiente na ética. "A reação da maquinaria emocional com respeito a questões morais é sem dúvida moldada por forças culturais."

Fonte: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/fsp/ciencia/fe2203200701.htm

COMENTÁRIOS:

Mais uma notícia que mostra que as teorias da Sociobiologia são bem sustentadas cientificamente.Não se descarta que as emoções morais evoluem num contexto cultural.Mas uma vez que costumes culturais ajudam pessoas a se reproduzirem mais que as outras e genes influem no comportamento das pessoas, então não podemos isolar o contexto cultural do contexto biológico (ambos estão entrelaçados).

As evidências mostram cada vez mais que aquilo que conhecemos como emoções morais é, em grande parte, determinado biologicamente.As pessoas que defendem esta tese são costumeiramente chamados de adeptos do materalismo filosófico por críticos que defendem que uma alma imaterial dotada de livre-arbítrio é a única responsável por nossas ações.

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